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March 6, 2023

The Triumph of Orthodoxy and the Meaning of "Anathema" (St. John Maximovitch)

The Triumph of Orthodoxy

By St. John Maximovitch

The Triumph of Orthodoxy was established in the 9th century under the Patriarch of Constantinople, Saint Methodios, after the final victory over Iconoclasm, as a triumph of victory over all false teachings-heresies. Orthodoxy is pure Christianity, without introducing human inventions into it. It is based on Holy Scripture and Holy Tradition coming from the apostles, sent by the Son of God Himself after the descent of the Holy Spirit upon them to preach the Truth to all nations. Later, the Ecumenical Synods and the Holy Fathers of the Church only established what was in agreement with Holy Scripture and the teaching of the Holy Apostles.

Being Orthodox is important, because the Orthodox teaching about God is that which was revealed by the Son of God Himself. Orthodox guidance for earthly life is also based on the Gospel and verified by the experience of the lives of many ascetics, crowned by God with holiness, witnessed by miracles. To be Orthodox means to have true knowledge of Higher Things, as far as it is accessible to a person, and also to know the way to the Heavenly world.

Orthodoxy gives not only abstract knowledge, it gives spiritual strength to lead a correct way of life, for through the Church the gifts of the Holy Spirit are given, strengthening in goodness. Any deviation from Orthodoxy is a damage to a clear spiritual vision, as well as a weakening of spiritual powers. Therefore, those who themselves not only deviate from Orthodoxy, but also captivate others, the Church cuts off from itself, just as a part of the body infected with cancer or a similar dangerous disease is cut off in order to protect the healthy part from infection. In Greek, that is expressed by the word "Anathema", which means "lifting up of something separate", i.e. submission to the judgment of God. At the same time, prayers are lifted up so that all those who err will turn to the truth and "come to the understanding of the truth," i.e. know the Truth and follow it.

The Meaning of "Anathema"

By St. John Maximovitch

The Greek word "anathema" consists of two words: "ana," which is a preposition indicating movement upward and "thema," which means a separate part of something. In military terminology, "thema" meant a detachment; in civil government "theme" meant a province. We currently use the word "theme," derived from "thema," to mean a specific topic of a written and intellectual work.

"Anathema" literally means the lifting up of something separate. In the Old Testament, this expression was used both in relation to that which was alienated due to sinfulness as well as, to that which was dedicated to God.

In the New Testament, in the writings of the Apostle Paul, it is used once in conjunction with "maranatha," meaning the coming of the Lord. The combination of these words means separation until the coming of the Lord; in other words being handed over to Him (1 Cor. 16:22).

The Apostle Paul uses "anathema" in another place without the addition of "maranatha" (Cal. 1:8-9). Here "anathema" is proclaimed against the distortion of the Gospel of Christ, as it was preached by the Apostle, no matter by whom this might be committed, whether by the Apostle himself or an angel from the heavens. In this same expression there is also implied: "let the Lord Himself pass judgement," for who else can pass judgement on the angels?

St. John the Theologian in Revelation (22:3) says that in the New Jerusalem there will not be any anathema. This can be understood in two ways, giving the word anathema both meanings: 
1) there will not be any lifting up to the judgement of God, for this judgement has already been accomplished; 
2) there will not be any special dedication to God, for all things will be the holy things of God, just as the light of God enlightens all (Rev. 21:23).

In the acts of the Synods and the further course of the New Testament Church of Christ, the word "anathema" came to mean complete separation from the Church. "The Catholic and Apostolic Church anathematizes," "let him be anathema," "let it be anathema," means a complete tearing away from the Church. While in cases of "separation from the communion of the Church" and other epitimia or penances laid on a person, the person remained a member of the Church, even though his participation in her grace-filled life was limited. Those given up to anathema were thus completely torn away from her until their repentance. Realizing that she is unable to do anything for their salvation, in view of their stubbornness and hardness of heart, the earthly Church lifts them up to the judgement of God. That judgement is merciful unto repentant sinners, but fearsome for the stubborn enemies of God. "It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God ... for our God is a consuming fire" (Heb. 10:31; 12:29).

Anathema is not final damnation because until death, repentance is possible. Anathema is fearsome, but not because the Church wishes anyone evil or God seeks their damnation. They desire that all be saved. However, it is fearsome to stand before the presence of God in the state of hardened evil as nothing is hidden from Him.

"It is fearsome to fall into the hands of the living God: this is a tribunal of thoughts and movements of hearts. Let no one enter tempting the unblemished faith: but in meekness and fear let us come before Christ, that we may receive mercy and find grace for help at the proper time" (Stichera of the Aposticha, Palm Sunday, Vespers).

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